# pacna -pa'a- gismu

x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that x2 happens.

Also: x1 is hopeful of x2; x2 will hopefully occur, as hoped for by x1; the value of x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to x1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna means 'hope' or 'wish' or 'expect': hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is "hoping"; when the probability is subjectively near 1, the attitude is described as "expecting"; the value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers ("li piso'u" to "li piro"); wish (= sotpa'a), hope (= sorpa'a), expect (= sojypa'a). See also djica.

## In notes:

djica
x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3.
a'o
attitudinal: hope - despair.
nonpa'a
x1 wishes for x2 (impossibility or believed impossibility)
norpa'a
x1 is indifferent/neutral/apathetic about event x2, expected likelihood x3.
nulpa'a
p1 expects/looks for the occurence of p2 (event), expected likelihood p3 (0-1); p1 subjectively evaluates the likelihood of p2 (event) to be p3.
pa'arbau
b1 is Esperanto.
sojypa'a
p1 expects p2 (event); p1 expects p2 to happen.
sorpa'a
p1 hopes for p2 (event); p1 hopes that p2 happens.
sotpa'a
p1 wishes for p2 (event); p1 wishes that p2 happened.
tolpa'a
x1 despairs/is despondent/pessimistic about x2, expected likelihood x3.
kanpe
x1 expects/looks for the occurence of x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1, default {li} {so'a} i.e. near 1); x1 subjectively evaluates the likelihood of x2 (event) to be x3.
ko'oi
discursive: imperative/hortative
apma
x1 (agent) consigns (by thought, word, or deed) x2 (patient) to fate x3 (abstraction)
incala
x1 (entity) expresses a wish for a given future event x2 (event) to occur; x1 expresses "god willing" / "deo volente" hope