x_{1} and x_{2} are path-linked by directed binary predicate x_{3} (ka) via intermediate steps x_{4} (ordered list; ce'o), such that no other node exists in the graph (x_{5}) to which x_{2} is connected in the same way/direction.

x_{2} is the root/leaf of the predicate (depending on point of view); it is the ultimate ancestor/descendent node in the graph along the path described by x_{4} for x_{1} using relation x_{3}. Not all combinations of x_{1} nodes and x_{3} relations and x_{4} paths have such an x_{2} node, nor is x_{2} necessarily unique if only x_{1} and x_{3} are specified (the same is true if "x_{1}" and "x_{2}" are exchanged in this second clause of this sentence). Use a SE conversion or other permutation on the arguments of x_{3} in order to change the perspective (for example: if we call x_{2} a root, then it *might* be the case that x_{1} is a leaf). In other words, x_{2} is *an* ultimate ancestor/descendent of x_{1}, but not necessarily the only/unique one, nor necessarily the most distant one by any given metric (including graph geodesic distance). All other notes are the same as those for ".utka", which should be referenced. In order to make x_{1} the ultimate node of the relationship in the other direction, exchange the order of the arguments in the predicate x_{3} and then use "se" on this word.

- sity'utkaro
- x
_{1}(possibly indirectly) cites x_{2}, via intermediate citation path x_{3}(ordered list; ce'o), for information/statement x_{4}, such that said x_{2}is the ultimate source (along path x_{3}) for said information/statement x_{4}. - utka
- x
_{1}and x_{2}are path-linked by binary predicate x_{3}(ka) via intermediate steps x_{4}(ce'o; (ordered) list). - utkaje
- x
_{1}and x_{2}are path-linked by directed binary predicate x_{3}(ka) via intermediate steps x_{4}(ordered list; ce'o), such that both (A) no other node exists in the graph (x_{5}) to which x_{2}is connected in the same way/direction and (B) no other node exists in the graph (x_{5}) to which x_{1}is connected in the opposite/symmetric way/direction.