x_{1} is a frame of reference/standard for observing/measuring/determining x_{2}, with/by rules x_{3}.

(x_{1} may be object or si'o idea); See also cmavo list ma'i, ckilu, merli, pajni, cimde, jdice, marde.

- ma'i
- manri modal, 1st place (by standard 2) in reference frame ...
- sema'i
- manri modal, 2nd place (of reference) as a reference standard for observing ...
- tema'i
- manri modal, 3rd place (of reference) observed/measured with/by rules ...

- cimde
- x
_{1}(property - ka) is a dimension of space/object x_{2}according to rules/model x_{3}. - ckilu
- x
_{1}(si'o) is a scale of units for measuring/observing/determining x_{2}(state). - jdice
- x
_{1}(person) decides/makes decision x_{2}(du'u) about matter x_{3}(event/state). - marde
- x
_{1}are the ethics/morals/moral standards/ethical standards of x_{2}(ind./mass) about situation x_{3}. - merli
- x
_{1}(agent) measures/evaluates x_{2}[quantity] as x_{3}units on scale x_{4}(si'o), with accuracy x_{5}. - pajni
- x
_{1}judges/referees/arbitrates/is a judge determining/deciding matter x_{2}(abstract). - mardikca
- d
_{1}is positive electric charge in d_{2}.