# pacna -pa'a- gismu

x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that x2 happens.

Also: x1 is hopeful of x2; x2 will hopefully occur, as hoped for by x1; the value of x3 is a subjective estimate of likeliness according to x1, and is the basic determinant of whether pacna means 'hope' or 'wish' or 'expect': hoping for objects/states with negligible expectation is "wishing"; if the state is plausibly likely, it is "hoping"; when the probability is subjectively near 1, the attitude is described as "expecting"; the value will usually be expressed using inexact numbers ("li piso'u" to "li piro"); wish (= sotpa'a), hope (= sorpa'a), expect (= sojypa'a). See also djica.

## In notes:

djica
x1 desires/wants/wishes x2 (event/state) for purpose x3.
a'o
attitudinal: hope - despair.
nonpa'a
x1 wishes for x2 (impossibility or believed impossibility)
norpa'a
x1 is indifferent/neutral/apathetic about event x2, expected likelihood x3.
nulpa'a
p1 expects/looks for the occurence of p2 (event), expected likelihood p3 (0-1); p1 subjectively evaluates the likelihood of p2 (event) to be p3.
pa'arbau
b1 is Esperanto.
sojypa'a
p1 expects p2 (event); p1 expects p2 to happen.
sorpa'a
p1 hopes for p2 (event); p1 hopes that p2 happens.
sotpa'a
p1 wishes for p2 (event); p1 wishes that p2 happened.
tolpa'a
x1 despairs/is despondent/pessimistic about x2, expected likelihood x3.
kanpe
x1 expects/looks for the occurence of x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1, default {li} {so'a} i.e. near 1); x1 subjectively evaluates the likelihood of x2 (event) to be x3.
ko'oi
discursive: imperative/hortative
apma
x1 (agent) consigns (by thought, word, or deed) x2 (patient) to fate x3 (abstraction)
gleiba
x1 would be happy to discover that x2 is the case.
incala
x1 (entity) expresses a wish for a given future event x2 (event) to occur; x1 expresses "god willing" / "deo volente" hope